The first complete map of the speed and direction of ice flow in Antarctica will help scientists to track future sea-level increases, according to the team behind the project.
NASA-funded researchers this week revealed the map, which shows glaciers flowing thousands of miles from the continent’s deep interior to its coast. The team created the map using integrated radar observations from a consortium of international satellites.
“This is like seeing a map of all the oceans’ currents for the first time; it’s a game changer for glaciology. We are seeing amazing flows from the heart of the continent that had never been described before”, said Eric Rignot from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory:
A paper about the ice flow, along with the map, was published online Thursday in ‘Science Express’.
Rignot and University of California Irvine scientists Jeremie Mouginot and Bernd Scheuchl used billions of data points captured by European, Japanese and Canadian satellites to weed out cloud cover, solar glare and land features masking the glaciers.
With the aid of NASA technology, the team painstakingly pieced together the shape and velocity of glacial formations, including the previously uncharted East Antarctica, which comprises 77 percent of the continent.
Like viewing a completed jigsaw puzzle, the scientists were surprised when they stood back and took in the full picture. They discovered a new ridge splitting the 5.4 million-square-mile landmass from east to west.
The team also found unnamed formations moving up to 800 feet annually across immense plains sloping toward the Antarctic Ocean and in a different manner than past models of ice migration.
“The map points out something fundamentally new: that ice moves by slipping along the ground it rests on,” said Thomas Wagner, NASA’s cryospheric program scientist in Washington. “That’s critical knowledge for predicting future sea level rise. It means that if we lose ice at the coasts from the warming ocean, we open the tap to massive amounts of ice in the interior”.