The biggest global school rankings have been published, with Asian countries in the top five spots and African countries at the bottom. Singapore heads the table, followed by Hong Kong, with Ghana at the bottom. The UK is in 20th place, among higher achieving European countries, with the US in 28th.
The OECD economic think tank says the comparisons - based on test scores in 76 countries - show the link between education and economic growth.
This is the first time we have a truly global scale of the quality of education, said the OECD's education director, Andreas Schleicher.
The idea is to give more countries, rich and poor, access to comparing themselves against the world's education leaders, to discover their relative strengths and weaknesses, and to see what the long-term economic gains from improved quality in schooling could be for them, he said.
The top performer, Singapore, had high levels of illiteracy into the 1960s, said Mr. Schleicher, showing how much progress could be made.
In the UK, the study shows about one in five youngsters leave school without reaching a basic level of education - and the OECD says that reducing this number and improving skills could add trillions of dollars to the UK economy.
I think it's partly a mindset, an expectation. There are plenty of examples of schools that have raised the bar dramatically, said education minister Lord Nash.
The analysis, based on test scores in maths and science, is a much wider global map of education standards than the OECD's Pisa tests, which focus on more affluent industrialized countries.
This latest league table, ranking more than a third of the world's nations, shows how countries such as Iran, South Africa, Peru and Thailand would appear on an international scale.
It shows once again the poor performance of the United States, slipping behind successful European countries and being overtaken by Vietnam. It also highlights the decline of Sweden, with the OECD warning last week that it had serious problems in its education system.
The rankings are based on an amalgamation of international tests taken in different regions, putting developed and developing countries on a single scale.
The findings will be formally presented at the World Education Forum in South Korea next week, where the United Nations is to convene a conference on targets for raising global education by 2030.
The top five places are all taken by Asian countries - Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan and Japan. The five lowest-ranked countries are Oman in 72nd, Morocco, Honduras, South Africa and Ghana in last spot.
If you go to an Asian classroom you'll find teachers who expect every student to succeed. There's a lot of rigor, a lot of focus and coherence, says Mr. Schleicher
These countries are also very good at attracting the most talented teachers in the most challenging classrooms, so that every student has access to excellent teachers.
The report, published by the OECD and written by Eric Hanushek from Stanford University and Ludger Woessmann from Munich University, argues that the standard of education is a powerful predictor of the wealth that countries will produce in the long run.
Poor education policies and practices leave many countries in what amounts to a permanent state of economic recession,” says the report.