Grinding trade disputes are undermining the global economy, which is set to see its slowest growth in nearly a decade, the new IMF chief said on Tuesday. Research shows the impact of the trade conflict is widespread and countries must be ready to respond in unison with cash infusions, Kristalina Georgieva said in her first speech as managing director of the International Monetary Fund.
She also called for a ramp-up in carbon taxes to address the other challenge facing the global economy - climate change.
In 2019, we expect slower growth in nearly 90% of the world. The global economy is now in a synchronized slowdown, Georgieva said in a speech ahead of IMF-World Bank autumn meetings next week.
This widespread deceleration means that growth this year will fall to its lowest rate since the beginning of the decade.
She said the IMF is cutting its forecasts for growth this year and next. Previously, the world economy had been projected to expand by 3.2% in 2019 and 3.5% in 2020.
The fund is due to release details in its updated World Economic Outlook on Oct 15.
While trade tensions had been talked about as a danger to the economy, now, we see that they are actually taking a toll, she said.
Global trade growth has come to a near standstill.
For the global economy, the cumulative effect of trade conflicts could mean a loss of around US$700 billion by 2020, or about 0.8% of GDP, she said, which is far higher than the fund previously forecast as its worst case scenario.
That is an amount approximately the size of Switzerland's entire economy, she said.
IMF research shows the secondary effects of the trade war - such as the loss of confidence and financial market reactions - are far greater than the direct economic impact of the tariffs.
It is the indirect impacts that really bite, Georgieva said of the trade war during a forum following her speech.
She warned that once undermined, confidence is hard to rebuild.
We are already shooting ourselves in the foot.
The results are clear. Everyone loses in a trade war, Georgieva said.
To protect against a sharp global slowdown, Georgieva called on countries with funds available to deploy their fiscal firepower.
While some governments are burdened by high debt levels, in places such as Germany, the Netherlands, and South Korea, an increase in spending - especially in infrastructure and R&D - will help boost demand and growth potential, she said.
Many economies have been relying on central banks and low interest rates to support economic expansion, she warned that keeping rates low for too long can cause investors to engage in risky behavior.
The IMF estimates that if there were a major economic downturn, corporate debt at risk of default would rise to US$19 trillion, or nearly 40 per cent of the total debt in eight major economies. This is above the levels seen during the financial crisis, she said.
This is above the levels seen during the financial crisis.