Pope Francis uttered the word genocide on Sunday to describe the mass murder of Armenians 100 years ago, sparking fury from Turkey which slammed the term as far from historical reality.
In a solemn mass in Saint Peter's Basilica to mark the centenary of the Ottoman killings of Armenians, Francis said the murders were widely considered 'the first genocide of the 20th century', quoting a statement signed by Pope John Paul II and the Armenian patriarch in 2001.
Many historians describe the World War I slaughter as the 20th century's first genocide, but Turkey vehemently denies the accusations.
Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu lashed out at Francis for inappropriate and one-sided comments, saying that to read these sorrows in a one-sided way is inappropriate for the pope and the authority that he holds.
A furious Ankara said it was recalling its ambassador to the Vatican, Mehmet Pacaci, for consultations. The pope's statement, which is far from the legal and historical reality, cannot be accepted, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said on Twitter.
Religious authorities are not the places to incite resentment and hatred with baseless allegations, he added.
While Francis did not use his own words to describe the killings as genocide, it was the first time the term was spoken aloud in connection with Armenia by a head of the Roman Catholic Church in Saint Peter's Basilica.
It was a very courageous act to repeat clearly that it was a genocide, indicated Vatican expert Marco Tosatti. By quoting John Paul II, he strengthened the Church's position, making it clear where it stands on the issue, he added.
The Argentine pope described the immense and senseless slaughter and spoke of the duty to honor their memory, for whenever memory fades, it means that evil allows wounds to fester.
The 78-year-old head of the Roman Catholic Church had been under pressure to use the term genocide publicly to describe the slaughter, despite the risk of alienating an important ally in the fight against radical Islam.
Before becoming pope, Jorge Bergoglio used the word several times in events marking the mass murders, calling on Turkey to recognize the killings as such.
As pope, Francis is said to have used it once during a private audience in 2013 -- but even that sparked an outraged reaction from Turkey.
Armenians say up to 1.5 million of their kin were killed between 1915 and 1917 as the Ottoman Empire was falling apart, and have long sought to win international recognition of the massacres as genocide.
But Turkey rejects the claims, arguing that 300,000 to 500,000 Armenians and as many Turks died in civil strife when Armenians rose up against their Ottoman rulers and sided with invading Russian troops.
More than 20 nations, including France and Russia, recognize the killings as genocide.