India announced it expected to spend less than 100 billion rupees (US$1.43 billion) on its first manned space mission to be launched by 2022, suggesting it is likely to be cheaper than similar projects by the United States and China.
India is cultivating a reputation as a low-cost space power, after the 2014 launch of an unmanned Mars mission at a cost of US$ 74 million, or less than the budget of the Hollywood space blockbuster Gravity and a fraction of the US$ 671 million the U.S. space agency NASA spent on its MAVEN Mars mission.
The Indian manned mission, announced this month by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and to be led by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), will aim to send a three-member crew to space for five to seven days in a craft that will be placed in a low earth orbit of 300-400 km, the Department of Space said in a statement.
“ISRO has developed some critical technologies like re-entry mission capability, crew escape system, crew module configuration, thermal protection system, deceleration and floatation system, sub-systems of life support system etc required for this program,” the statement said.
ISRO Chairman K. Sivan said the agency had “perfected the engineering aspects of the mission”, although it was new to the field of bioscience - dealing with living beings.
Private agencies will also participate in the mission, and ISRO might consider collaborations with space agencies from “friendly countries with advanced space programs”, the statement added.
India’s neighbor and old rival China first sent humans to space in 2003, becoming only the third country to have such capability after Russia and the United States.
China's Shenzhou program is secretively run through military and government agencies and its budget is not public. In 2003, officials said it had cost 18 billion yuan here (US$ 2.62 billion).
India’s space program has a total budget of around $4 billion, and Modi’s government hopes recent satellite launches - many on behalf of foreign governments - would improve its prospects of winning a larger share of the more than $300 billion global space industry.
Earlier this month, NASA unveiled its analysis of data collected from lunar orbit by an Indian spacecraft. The findings marked the first time scientists confirmed by direct observation the presence of water on the moon’s surface - in hundreds of patches of ice deposited in the darkest and coldest reaches of its polar regions.
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It amazes me that a country like India with it's chronic levels of poverty particularly in the large cities and it's millions of subsistence level farmers can waste $1.4 billion on putting a man into orbit - surely that could be better spent on helping the destitute children of Mumbai etc.Sep 01st, 2018 - 01:43 pm 0
@darraghSep 01st, 2018 - 03:05 pm 0
I was thinking the same. But with India's huge population, that $1.4 bn is little more than $1 per person, it's not going to go far in ending poverty. So maybe they are better off spending money on R&D? Their unmanned satellite launches could well lead to commercial contracts and pay for themselves, not so sure about a manned flight.
@DTSep 05th, 2018 - 04:59 pm 0
“Lula's case’s definitely not one where evidence 100% clear”, shows you’re not all that well informed. The deed not in his name doesn’t prove it was not an illegal gift. Am fed up repeating the same stuff, but you conveniently ignore MLeticia’s meetings/ visits with Leo Pinheiro to the flat in 2014, to supervise the reform ; maybe you think she was only the decorator, working for someone else ? They planned to move in by Dec, as arranged btwn ML / LP, but the L J fingered it Oct/Nov. But that is an indication of nothing, right ?
Moro can’t ‘decide’ to prosecute anyone - he was designated (by the STF) to be the judge of the L J trials in the lower court. If he’d acquitted Lula, he would’ve had to ignore the evidence presented by the Feds.
“He doesn't need a pardon though, does he? Earlier on you implied he might : ‘IF Meirelles or Alckmin don’t win…who’ll protect him ?’…he’ll be tried, then most likely convicted, and if so, why pardoned ? Temer isn’t a candidate, ‘n loses immunity on 31st Dec. His case’ll go to 1st instance. Maluf was sent to jail at 86, ‘n is now under house arrest only because he’s very ill.
The ‘mensalão’ trials went on until 2012, ‘n Dirceu’s case went to the STF, with the other defendants who had immunity, only because he was the mastermind. No point splitting the case. The photo (link) shows the PT claque at the time, Lula, Dirceu ‘n Palocci.
I’m not trying to mislead anyone. Have always been clear on the fact that only the 1st two examine proof …and isn’t that enough ? Or, are you too, one of those people who believe that ALL courts should examine evidence from scratch, and that appeals should be unlimited, and while not ruled on, the defendant remains free ? in practice, meaning ‘never’ going to prison. Is that how it works in the UK ?
Wiretaps didn’t provide evidence used in Lula’s trial, they gave investigators leads to find evidence. The Law permits jailing when the defendant might flee or try to destroy evidence…as some did.